Global Health Challenges and Solutions – What can be Done and How?
Global health is an area for study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving health equity for all people worldwide. There is worldwide improvement in health. Increase in life expectancy is due to the decrease in mortality rate, particularly infant and maternal mortality and that are caused by infectious diseases in childhood and early adulthood. This decrease in mortality was gained by health education, better housing a trend towards smaller families, and public health measures such as immunization.
Life expectancy has improved but not equally. Low and middle income countries are still facing health issues. Much mortality in the underdeveloped countries goes unnoticed since many poor families cannot afford to register their babies in the government registry.
Poor children have high risk of mortality like children of Pakistan, India, Sub Sahara Africa, Somalia etc. Most of the children die because of malnutrition and common deadly diseases like malaria, measles, diarrhea and pneumonia. It is due to socioeconomic problems.
A gender difference in mortality rate of children across the world has also been noticed. In Pakistan, China, India and Nepal, girls’ mortality is more than boys’ mortality due to the preferable health care seeking for boys
Apart from child mortality, mortality rates of adults are also a cause of concern. In communicable diseases HIV/AIDS is a major burden. Thanks to poor diet, alcohol and smoking, non communicable diseases like ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and cancer are also playing a major role in adult mortality. Even in America and Europe, the adult mortality is high due to non-communicable diseases.
Injuries are also a cause of adult death because injuries can be disabling leading to death. Road traffic accidents are a major cause of injuries. They are increasing in developing countries like sub-Sahara Africa and Asia.
Developed countries also face this issue but in the form of self inflicted injuries. Suicide is major burden in developed countries while in developing countries it is war or violence, such as in Afghanistan.
Children and adult health can be made better. Mortality rate can be decreased. It can all be prevented by proper distribution of medical officers and health workers in different areas. They should be counseled on routine basis so that they can counsel parents.
Infants should be immunized as well as pregnant women. Proper education of hygiene can prevent spread of many communicable diseases. Better health plans should be implemented by the government.
Global health is improving but with inequity. Efforts are needed to improve health and decrease the mortality rate of low and middle income countries. It all can be done with the education of common people.
About the Author: Zaryab Ghauri is a 3rd year MBBS student at Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. She can be reached at [email protected]
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